Given its well-designed and prompt public transportation network and a highway system that's easy for drivers to follow, Spain is a simple destination to navigate. Nearly the entire country is covered by rail lines -- some of them high-speed -- and by bus routes that safely carry you between big cities and towns.
There are few difficulties to getting around Spain; if we had to pick one nuisance, it's the reduced schedules on Sundays and holidays (noted on timetables as domingos y festivos). But with the right amount of planning, even that's not such a big deal. Read on to learn more about your Spain transportation options.
Flying to and Around Spain
The majority of international visitors arrive at Madrid's Barajas Airport or Barcelona's El Prat, both of which are less than 15 miles from the city center. Spain has dozens of international and local airports, though the best options for connections are from Madrid or Barcelona. Both are well served by national and discount airlines, including Iberia and Air Europa, and offer daily flights to almost every corner of the country and also to the Canary and Balearic Islands.
Spain by Train
While Spain's state-run rail network may not be the most efficient in Europe, it serves its purpose. RENFE, which runs the rails, has improved its timeliness in recent years. Madrid serves as the heart of the system, with service radiating to major cities in all directions.
Spain has several types of trains:
Long-Distance: There are high-speed (AVE) and regular service (Talgo) trains, with fares based on type of train and class of seat (first/club, business or tourist class). Most long-distance trains have bar and restaurant service, air conditioning, movies and reclining seats. Overnight trains offer sleeping berths (couchettes) for an additional fee. High-speed trains can cost significantly more than the slower trains, but get you to your destination much faster (Barcelona to Seville, for example, is about five and a half hours by high-speed train, versus 11 and a half hours via slower services).
Medium-Distance: Talgo trains also operate medium-distance routes, which generally are just a few hours in length. Onboard amenities sometimes include a drink and snack cart.
Local: Denoted by the word cercanias, local trains offer just one class of seat and are usually under two hours. They tend to make a lot of stops.
Fares in Spain are among the lowest in Europe. You can purchase tickets online, at a RENFE ticket office or from a station agent. Local train tickets also can be bought from ticket machines, when available. And of course you can purchase seats in advance from a travel agency, but expect to pay an upcharge for the service.
At large stations, such as those in Madrid and Barcelona, make sure you get in line at the correct window -- some windows book only local trains (cercanias) and others handle long distance (largos recorridos). To make matters even more confusing, you'll likely find yet another window that only makes advance or international reservations.
Travelers 60 and older qualify for discounts between 25 percent and 40 percent. Show ID at a ticket window and request a gold card (tarjeta dorada). Children under the age of 13 also are discounted, with free tickets available for children under 4 who share a seat with an older traveler.
Buy tickets no later than one hour before departure, though that can even be cutting it close; naturally, you'll want to plan farther ahead when traveling on holidays and during peak tourist seasons, such as Holy Week. And specify whether you want one way (ida) or roundtrip (ida y vuelta).
Spain by Bus
Almost 200 cities and towns are served by Spain's excellent bus network. Intercity buses are clean and safe, making them a stellar option for all travelers, not just those on a budget.
The hardest part about using Spain's bus network is trying to figure out which bus company to use and where the bus station is -- easy in small towns, but a challenge in big cities, where the terminals could be miles apart. For example, Madrid has two main bus terminals -- Avenida de America and Estacion del Sur.
Some companies, such as Avanzabus, are established enough that they have English-language websites where you can view schedules and buy tickets, but it can be hard to know if online timetables are up to date. More reliable are timetables posted at the stations themselves or the website Movelia, which allows you to make advance reservations for a small processing fee and is the best resource for information on buses in Spain. You can also buy tickets at the station on the day of your trip.
Renting a Car in Spain
International car rental agencies are widely available in Spain; they include Budget, Hertz, Avis and Thrifty. European agencies, such as Europcar, and Spanish companies, including Pepecar, are also available.
Advance reservations online nearly always get you the best rate. Most pick-up and drop-off locations are at airports, with some at train stations or city offices.
Foreigners must be 21 years old and have had a license for at least one year to rent a car in Spain. U.S. and European Union driver's licenses are accepted.
A few points to keep in mind:
Highways are called autopistas and have speed limits of 120 kph (75 mph). Secondary roads are called autovias and have speed limits of 50 to 90 kph (31 to 56 mph).
Some of Spain's highways are toll roads -- look for signs with an "AP," "R" or the Spanish word peaje on them. While credit cards are accepted, we recommend paying with cash, just in case there's a problem with the credit card reader accepting an international credit card.
Parking can be beastly in some cities and historic towns. It can get so crowded in some places, like Granada, that local governments have instituted fees during high-traffic times of day. If you're visiting a congested city, consider staying at a hotel that offers parking.
If the police pull you over for speeding or for speaking on a mobile phone while driving (it's banned), don't be surprised if you're asked to pay a fine on the spot. Pay in cash and ask for a receipt.
To learn more, see International Car Rental Tips.
Spain by Taxi
Taxis are a reasonably priced option in cities or if you need transport from a town to a rural destination. In general, Spanish taxi drivers are trustworthy and do not make a habit of bilking tourists.
In a city, hail a taxi on the street or seek one out at a taxi stand (parada de taxi), which can be found at train stations, airports and major intersections. Available taxis have green lights or signs that say libre (free) on them.
Taxis run on meters in cities; drivers taking you long distances won't necessarily use the meter, which is fine as long as you agree in advance on the fare.
Note that if you phone a taxi company to request a ride, you will need to pay for the taxi's journey to your pick-up spot. Also, it's common to pay a surcharge or a higher per-kilometer rate at night and on Sundays.
Spain by Ferry
Most people going from mainland Spain to the Balearic Islands travel via ferry. Ferries depart from the east coast cities of Barcelona, Denia and Valencia. Express service is available. Tickets should be purchased in advance, as the ferries often sell out.
Additionally, it is possible to travel between Spain and Italy, Morocco, Algeria and even England via boat. Companies include Grimaldi Lines, Trasmediterranea and Brittany Ferries. Some ships offer luxury accommodations, swimming pools, restaurants, even nightclubs.
You May Also Like
Barcelona Travel Guide
Where to Stay in Spain: Lodging from Paradors to Pensiones
Top 25 Ways to Save on Europe Travel
Share Advice from Your Latest Trip
Get Our Free Travel Newsletter!
--written by Elissa Leibowitz Poma